Crop genetic resources are fundamental to agricultural production and future plant breeding which is of critical importance to meet the needs of mankind. Besides providing food and fodder, they make a vital contribution to agricultural economy as source of oil, sugar and fibre. This book presents a compilation on the current status of genetic resource of important oilseed and cash crops (rapeseed-mustard, groundnut, soyabean, sunflower, castor, sesame, niger, safflower, cotton, jute and allied fibres and sugarcane). Eminent scientists belonging to a broad range of disciplines have compiled and analyzed comprehensive information on current research and activities in the area of crop genetic resource, particularly with reference to the origin, taxonomy, diversity, collection, exchange, conservation, evaluation, utilization and molecular characterization of these crops. Research priorities and activities for future work with respect to individual crop/crop group have been highlighted. Issues concerning ownership, access and intellectual property rights on crop genetic resources, arising due to international treaties such as Convention on Biological Diversity, International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for food and Agriculture and Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, are also discussed. There is paucity of such a kind of information in a singular treatise. This book is a valuable reference for genetic resource managers, researchers, breeders, teachers, students and policy makers in biology and agriculture.